Diseases of Banana and their management

                                     Agri Search ( India) Pvt. Ltd., Nashik

Name

Casual Organism

Favorable Conditions

Symptoms

Control Measures

 

 

 

Preventive

Curative

1.Sigatoka        Karpa

Micosperila musicola

In August September month at RH above 90 %. Temperature between 22 to 30 0C. Dense planting, excess irrigation and poor drainage. Imbalance in fertilizer use.

Initial symptoms on lower leaves. Thin yellowish elliptical spots increase and drying of entire leaf in advance stage. Active leaves when reduce, fruit size remains small and fruit development is affected. When incidence is more fruits remain under developed and show pre mature ripening.

 

Removal of disease affected plant parts from earlier crops. Suckers treatment and selection of planting material from disease free field, crop rotation.

Use of bio fertilizers.

 

Spraying of fungicide like Mancozeb, Copper Oxichloride, Carbandiazim, Tridemarf, Chlorothalonil, Propiconazol + mineral oil at regular interval.

2. Cigar end rot

 

Verticilium thiobromi

 

In July August, high RH 70 to 80 %, warm temp 25 oC to 32oC, dense planting and fields having more shed, poorly managed crop, more in old plantations.

Infection initiated in perianth spreads on fruits and fruits get shrivelled fruit show ash like growth and dry rot in pulp which get fibrous.

Removal of pistil and perianth after 10 days of the appearance of fruit (tipping) and spraying of Copper fungicide.

Spraying of Copper fungicide.

3. Colletotrichum    Stalk rot.

 

Colletotrichum gloesporioidis, and Brotidiplodia thiobromi

 

High temp above 350C and scorching sun.

During summer when leaf spot disease reduce number of leaves the stalk remains exposed to  scorching sun which starts rotting. This rot increases towards both down and up direction. Fruit remains under developed and in severe cases entire bunch

gets damaged.

Soon after emerging bunch spray carbandaizm and cover bunch with polythene or poly propylene bag to protect from scorching sun.

Spray Helmet on bunch.

 

Spraying of Carbandazim.

 

 

4. Pseudostem   

  Heart Rot

 

Botrydiplodia species, Gloeosporium sp and Fusarium sp.

July - August, excess and heavy rain, high soil moisture, rains splashes when enter in the whirl of growing plant with soil at different crop stages.

Heart leaves with part of lamina missing or decayed. Inner leaves turn yellow to brown and then die. In severe cases all leaves dry and plant dies.

  •  
  • Field sanitation, Good drainage, Proper spacing.

 

Spraying of Captan, Dithane M – 45, Dithane Z - 78.

 

5. Cucumber  

   mosaic virus

 

CMV transmitted by aphids.

 

Rains after warm climate,

occurs more in winter and summer cultivated crops. In August - September when temperature is low and humidity is high.

 

Chlorosis, areas between veins, turn chlorotic and dry - leaves turn yellow with golden yellow lines or irregular yellowish spots. Growth stunted and plant dies.

 

 

 

 

 

Use of disease free planting material,  regular spraying of  insecticide for aphid control. Use of sticky trap for aphid monitoring.

 

Spraying of insecticides for aphid control and removal of CMV affected plants immediately when appear.

6. Banana

   Streak Virus

BSV

Paritro Virus spread through suckers and virus affected tissue cultured plants, poorly hardened plants.

In winter January -February after rains. This disease spreads through atmosphere also in absence of aphids.

On leaves small spots of yellow colour seen which turn into long streaks, greenish yellow streaks looks like burnt and leaves become blackish. Hindrance in bunch initiation, bunch drop or seed development in fruits, misshapen fruits dwarfing of plants and drying of plants.

 

 Use healthy suckers

 / TC plants.

 Aphid control with insecticides  

 + Arka Bon spray.

 

7. Irvinia rot /

   Collar rot.

 

Erwinia carotovora

 

High soil moisture, poor drainage, wet weather, water logged conditions.

New leaves of the plant dry. Pseudo stem part near soil surface rot. When lift the plant it separates from corm. Leaves of new growth suddenly come  small and narrow.

0.1% Bleaching powder. 4 kg bleaching powder / acre for 200 lit water. Repeat after 8-10 days. 3rd drenching after 8-10 days again.

Spraying of Sanchar - 40 + Captan + Hexaconazol + Valine and drenching.